Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Troubleshooting Microprocessor

Troubleshooting Microprocessor techniques solve the prolems that arisesdue to the improper functioning of the microprocessor.

1) Overheating
A microprocessor produces heat while processing the data. The microprocessor also overheats when it is performorming beyond the recommended speed.Overheating can cause permanent damage to the microprocessor.
To solve the proble of overheating:
1. Check that the microprocessor fan is installed and functioning properly.
2. Ensure that the heat sink compound is properly in contact with the processor and the heat sink assembly and is not dried up.
3. Check the jumper settings on the motherboard and the BIOS settings to see that the microprocessor is not overlocked.
4. Check that the voltage supplied by the motherboard is compatible with the microprocessor.
5. Check the motherboard manual to see that the motherboards supports the microprocessor.

2)Slow processing
The microprocessor generally runs slow if there is some fault within it.
To sole the Problem of slow processing:
1. Check if the vendor has supplied the correct microprocessor.
2. Check whether the microprocessor is compatible with the motherboard by reffering to the manual.
3. Check the CPU fan whether its properly rotating.
4. Check if the Microprocessor supports the applications that are running.
5. Scan the computer for viruses.
6. Check the jumper settings on the motherboard and the bios settings of the microprocessor.
7. Troubleshoot the RAM.

3) NO Display
The Computer can may encounter a problem of no diplay . This problem may be dure to processor failure. At this moment the system generates beep codes about the processor failure.You may have to replace the processor in sucjh a situation.
To sole the problem of no display:
1. Check whether the CPU fan is functioning properly.
2. Ensure that tha processor with heat sink assembly is propwerly installed.
3. Restore the BIOS seetting to default state and check whether the problem has been solved.

MY Note: Replace the processor with the same specification. The speed, voltage , FSB and cache size of the new procezsoe should match with that of the old processor.

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Configuring the Microprocessor

You must configure the microprocessor after installing it. Configuring the microprocessor is possible by adjusting the jumpers, if they are present on the motherboard. The jumper settings differ from one motherboard to another. The motherboard usually auto-detects the microprocessor. Microprocessord can also be configured using the settings from the system basic input output system (BIOS). The BIOS stores the system information.
Microprocessor is built and set to perform at the recommended speed. The recommended speed of microprocessor is set below the maximum speed of the microprocessor. Modifying microprocessor configuration increases the speed of microprocessor.
To modify the speed of microprocessor using the system BIOS:

1) Refer to the instruction manual for setting the speed of the microprocessor at which it can give optimum performance.
2) start the system.
3) Press the Delete key on the keyboard to enter the BIOS setup.
4) Select CPU PnP setup screen that enables to modify the settings for the microprocessor .
5(Press Enter to display CPU PnP setup screen that enables to modify the settings for the microprocessor.
6)Use the page up or page down key on the keyboard to select the required CPU Ratio
7) Press ESC to return to the BIOS main menu.
8) Press f10 to save and exit.

Monday, December 15, 2008

Types Of Microprocessor

MIcroprocessors process the data using instructions. It retrieves the data and instructions From the RAM. Micrprocessor can be classified into two types CISC and RISC based on the number of instructions built into it.

Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) - The microprocessor using cisc archotectur have many instructions build into it.This saves the processing time for performing tasks. The time is saved Because the required instructions are available in the microprocessor itself and it does not have to receive the instructions from the program stored in the external memory , such as the RAM.
The CISC architectur helps the microprocessor to speed up the execution of programs requiring instructions. However , the instructionsbuilt into the microprocessor affects the performance of the microprocessor . This is because more time taken to process the instructionsand also the space availableon the microprocessor for processing reduces.To overcome this problem more transistors need to be built into the microprocessor to maintain the speed of microprocessor.

Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)- The cisc MIcroprocessor have the instructions built in the microprocessor. These instructions take up space in the microprocessor and leaves less space for program processing. Some microprocessors perform specific tasks, such as those used for performing scientific calculations. The extra instructions built into the microprocessor take up valuable space in the microprocessor. The processing time taken to execute the extra instructions is also wasted.
To overcome these problems , a new architectur called RISC came into picture.The microprocessors using RISC architecture have limited instructions built in it. These requires few transistors to be built into the microprocessor to make up for the time delay in processing the instructions. The reduction in instructions also saves the space in the microprocessor. The RISC microprocessor is cheaper to nuild than the CISC microprocessor.

Speed of Microprocessor

The speed of the microprocessor depends on various factors , such as the number of instructions it processes, the bandwidth, and the clock speed. An instruction is a command that the micrprocessor executes. The bandwidth specifies the number of binary digits that the processor microprocessor can process in a single instruction. The clock speed specifies the speed at which the microprocessor processes an instruction.
The speed of microprocessor also depends on the number of transistors built into the processor. The transistors in the microprocessor boost the data signals on the processor. The larger the number of transistors built on the microprocessor the faster is the speed of the microprocessor. The advancements in technology have reduced the size of the transistors and have increased the size of the transistors and have increased the processing speedof the processor

parts of the microprocessor

The microprocesor is a complex chip in the system .
The parts of the microprocessor are

Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU)- Performs all the arithmetic calculations such as addition substraction and the logical calculations using the AND and Or operators.
Control Unit (CU)- Controls the flow of the data and information to other units of the microprocessor.
Decode Unit- Decodes the various instructions sent to the microprocessor . It converts data to language that is understood by the Microprocesor.
Instruction Cache- Stores the instructions that are required to process the data .
Prefetch unit-Controls the flow of the data and gives instructions to the decode unit from the instruction cache.
Data cache- Stores data in the microprocessor that is further used for processing.
Registers- Stores data required by the ALU unit.

Introduction of Microprocessor

Computer is a machine that is capable of accepting data , processing it and displaying the appropriate output. It can also store data and perform a set of complex calculations to accomplish complicated tasks. These calculations are performed by central processing unit.(CPU) of the system. CPU is also known as the microprocessor which is the heart of the system. Microprocessor accepts input from input devices such as keyboard or mouse in the form of data and instructions. It processes the data and instructions and sends the processed information to the output device such as the monitor or printer.

Types of computers

Computers perform a vast range of functions . Some computers are so powerful that hundred or even thousands of users can use them at a single instant. There are four main types of computers namely Microcomputer , Minicomputers, Mainframes and Supercomputers.

Microcomputer, also known as a personal computer,is a digital computer that works on a micrprocessor. Microcomputers are small machines designed for individual users. Average people who have a basic knowledge of computers can use microcomputers. Individuals in homes and offices are major users of the micrcomputer. It is an expensive computer that performs various tasks such as the word processing , desktop publishing and accounting. It is also useful for running spreadsheets and adatabase management applications.
The microcomputer has several disadvantages , such as small size , low cost and portability. Its main disadvantage is that the speed of processing is low as compared to other types of computers.

Minicomputer is midsized and multi-user computer . Microprocessing is the process of running multiple programs or processes at a given instant . The minicomputer is a smedium range computer. It is also known as the mis-range servers. Minicomputers fakll in between the microcomputers and the mainframes.
The qadvantage of using minicomputer is that it can cater to multiple users at a lower cost than mainframes . Minicomputers are ideal for small-sized companies. The disadvantage of the minicomputers is that they are large and bulky.

Initially, mainframes were huge computers occupying entire rooms or floors. Mainframes were used to serve as the center of large systems in companies. They were designed to serve the purpose of centralized computing instead of the distrubuted computing. With the development in the field of computing , the size of mainframes has reduced and the power has increased.
The advatage of mainframe is that it can support many users and instructions due to its incomparable memory and processing speed. The disadvatage of mainframe is its huge size and enermous cost.

Supercomputer is the fastest and most expensive type of computer. Supercomputersspecialize in high speeding Processing of data. Applications that use large amounts of calculationsuse supercomputers. Some of these applications are molecular chemistry. Nuclear research.
The advatage of supercomputers is their speed , which is unattached by any other type of computer.. The major disadvatage of supercomputers is the heat they generate during their operation.
The disadvantage

Functions of a PC

Personal computer has a microprocessor for processing data, a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying data and a storage device for storing data.PC performs many functions such as :

> Accepting Data- Accepts data input from the user through various input devices like the keyboards, mouse,scanner ,digital camera or microphone.

Storing Data- Enables you to storage large amounts of data. this also helps in recovering the data stored earlier. It can store the data permanently on the storage devices such as the hard didk drive, floppy disk drive, physical memory, optical drives or tape drives.

Processing Data- Performs operations on the input data. A set of instructions starts these operations. These instructions are either stored in the memory or built into the micrprocessor. Data processing is the process of manipulating the data using a set of instructions and producing the desired output.

Displaying Data- Shows processed data to the user. This data can be in the form of numbers, characters, or pictures. PC displays the output through various output devices, such as monitors ,printers or speakers.

Introduction of computer

Computer is an integral part of every day life. We use personal computer to perform various tasks . Data storage and processing are the important tasks performed by the pc. It takes data from user, processes it, and gives the output in a prescribed manner . The use of PC makes mathematical calcilations easier . scientists use the pc for scientific applications such as weather forecasts , research and chemical analysis.
Pc provides faster means of communication through the internet by sending and receiving e-mails. We can use the internet to gain information on any topic. We can use the pc for entertainment, such as for watching movies using Dvds ,listening to music using CDs and Mp3s. Computer is an electronic device that accepts ,stores and processes the data and returns the result or output.